I have seen this claimed on reddit and imagur to be an actual composite image of a cell from "radiography, nuclear magnetic resonance and cryoelectron microscopy". Yet despite seeing it posted all over the inernet claiming its a real image I can not find a single scientific source for it. Anyone who can figure out if this is legit or not please comment.

@Science #science #biology #microbiology

A picture of my home Organic Chemistry lab I took about 8 years ago. Its really not hard to set up a home lab, and you can buy all the fancy stuff as you go if you want, but you can do a lot with even a basic setup.

#chemistry #OrganicChemistry #Science @Science

So the Jupyter Labs container I shared with everyone yesterday has undergone some improvements I wanted to share, namely, it now supports 7 different languages rather than just 4: Python3, ruby, julia, Rust, R, Haskell, and Javascript.

In case you are unfamiliar Jupyter Labs is a way to write notebooks (formated text with inline code that runs and displays elements like graphs or text). These notebooks are often used in science settings and as such I have integrated all the science tools python has to offer more or less. It is a great place to write up technical documents with working code side by side with the data it produces, but its also a great environment to play around with various programming languages and try out snippets without needing a full project environment. Thanks to the support of many different languages it is a great way to learn and try a language without needing to set anything up, since it all runs from a container.

In short just run a single command to bring up the container (the image is pulled from docker hub) and in a few minutes you will have a running web server you can point your browser to and start coing in any of the 7 languages supported. I use it to share snippet ideas. It is backed by anaconda so you can easily upload a notebook to their servers and then share a static version of it with people by sharing a link to the notebook, which can be viewed directly without needing any apps, not even Jupyter Labs installed.

Check it out here:


or just get the docker container image directly: modjular/jupyter-all:latest

#Docker #Python #R #Ruby #julia #Haskell #Javascript #Rust #programming #foss #oss #coding #container #containers @Science
QT: qoto.org/@freemo/1059695686681


Interesting fact of the day: The speed of light has only been proven to be a constant speed round trip. Not the instantaneous speed of light nor the speed of light while heading in a single direction has ever been able to be proven as constant.

In other words, it has never been experimentally disproved that light doesn’t, for example, preferentially travel at half the speed of light in one orientation, but instantaneous in another. In fact it may very well be impossible to test the one-way speed of light due to the very consequences of relativity itself.

#science #physics #relativity


This is so cool. With just a little bit of modification using a single 3d printed part glued to the side of the head of a 3d printer this japanese team managed to create a fully autonomous robot that can basically built its own tools, pick them up, and then use them to manipulate its environment.


#3dprinting #3dprinter #robot #robots #engineering #automation


I was asked to explain the space-weather ticker I posted earlier (attached). This was my reply.


First off the are two categories of radio operation that is relevant and effected in opposite ways..

space to earth

Number 2 breaks down in two ways as well that is

2a. line of sight operation, vs
2b. skywave operation.

Skywave operation is really the most relevant here, line of sight might be effected somewhat by noise floor effects from sun but that is only relevant some of the time.

Reflection Layers

There are two main factors from the sun that affect operation. One is radio interference, this would be caused by flares and ejections directed at earth. In extreme cases it can cause an EMP but thats very rare.

The other is ionizing radiation in the form of UV (a much shorter wavelength version of UV than what reaches the earth), ionized particles, solar wind and similar. This ionizes the ionosphere in a specific way that causes radio waves to be blocked and/or reflected. Basically there are two regions in the ionosphere both in whats called the F-region.. These are F1 which is at 200 km above sea level, and F2 which is at 300 km. The higher F2 layer allows for radio signals at a particular angle to be reflected, this allows radio operators to bounce their signals off this part of the sky and reach distant receivers. Since F2 is much closer to the ground this particular region actually blocks long range communication and thus significantly reduces the distance a radio signal can reach to mostly line of sight.

Usually, when the radiation is high enough, we see the F2 layer ionize first in the morning (basically when the sun is just coming up for people who live near your horizon), which makes the morning the best time to transmit. By afternoon the F1 layer is ionized by sun radiation and thus the signal is blocked again.. the reverse happens in the evening. So early and late day propagation is best. This is called gray-line propagation.

There is also E layer propagation which operates at much lower frequencies and at steeper angles. This is what is used for very short distance transmissions within the 100’s of km. This is called NVIS (Near Vertical Incidents Skywave).

Reading the screencap

Now with this said, it only works when the radiation from the sun is just right. Basically there needs to be enough radiation from the sun to actually fully ionize the layers.


SFI on the chart stands for β€œsolar flux index” this is a measure of the quantity of ionized particles and solar wind measured. This is usually in the range of 0 - 400 with 0 - 100 being poor for propagation, 0 - 200 being marginal, and 200+ being ideal/good.


SN stands for sunspot numbers, these effect different layers selectively. sunspots reflect the intensity of the sun’s magnetic field. It ranges from about 0 to 400 as well.

Lower values here show a preference to ionize lower levels of our ionosphere. 0 to about 150 will preferentially ionize the E-region and be ideal for low frequency propagation (160m wavelength to 80M) in the NVIS configuration, so very short distance (100’s of km) propagation only which is all these low frequencies can ever do.

Higher values, above 200 means the F-regions are preferentially ionized. That means low frequencies like 160m and 80m will not propagate at all and only work line of sight (10’s of km), but higher frequencies ~20m and higher in frequency will propagate via skywave. These frequencies now can propagate 1000’s of km around the world in these conditions (assuming SFI and other factors are good).

K index

The next line is K-index just labeled K. This one is rather complicated.. it basically looks at the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field and how it is disturbed (which is an indirect way of measuring the solar winds and its interaction of the earth).

This doesn’t effect the ionosphere itself so much as the other measures since its only partly effected by solar winds. This is used as a measure of expected band noise and thus how high the noise floor will be. the max value is 9 and indicates significant noise. 5 is about the cutoff where geomagnetic storms are present.

The K-index is not linear and is calculated from the a-index (lowercase a, different from A-index below).


is really just another way of measuring K-index. Or to be more precise both A-index and K-index are calculated from the underlying a-index (a-index is different from A-index). The A-index is the average of the last 8 a-index, and thus has a much simpler interpretation.

Think of A-index as a long-term rolling average of the K-index in a different scale.

Generally A-index is even less linear than K-index with 0-50 being low noise and 100 - 400 being high noise.. lower is better.


304A stands for β€œ304 Angstroms” which is the wavelength of UV light measures. Basically its the strength of UV radiation from the sun as measured from space (different than earth UV levels). the β€œ@ SEM” part refers to the instrument on the satellite used to record it, called SEM, SOHO and EVE are other possible instruments used to get this measurement and it changes depending on the instrument available at the time.

In this case higher is better as it means more of that F-layer ionization I mentioned.below 80 is poor, 150 and up is good, 250 and up is amazing.

Ptn/Elec Flux

This is Proton and Electron flux. These have a similar effect as UV except they ionize the E-layer more so than the F-layer. So they harm long distance short wavelength propagation but improve short distance long wave-length propagation.


This is just the predicted chance of aurora. Not directly relevant for radio.

Aur Lat

This tells us the largest lattitude likely to see the aurora.

Bz and SW

This is the interplanetary (in space) magnetic field vector (B-field means magnetic field). This is the magnetic field that is incoming and striking the earth from space.

The Bz part is the intensity, the SW part is the direction in degrees. When it lines up with the earths magnetic field it strengthens it, when it doesnt it weakens it. Positive values strengthen it, negative weaken it.

other values

Everything else is self explanatory I suspect. β€œsolar flare prob” is the percentage change of a solar flare, which we dont tend to know until just a few minutes before their ejections strike.

β€œMUF” stands for β€œMaximum Usable Frequency”. It indicates the highest frequency (shortest wavelength) that is likely to be capable of bouncing off the ionosphere (f-layer or e-layer) and therefore the highest frequency capable of skywave propagation.

#radio #rf #science #space #spaceweather #ham #hamradio #QOTOJournal


Hey everyone, a supernova just went off in Cassiopeia!!!! Right now it is in the early stage so only visible by telescope but after a few days it is likely to be visible to the naked eye. Supernovas are fairly rare so might want to make some time to see this one!

#astronomy #Astrophotography #space #science

I shared this in a reply recently but thought the information and maps might be neat on my main timeline...

Here is one of my favorite maps showing water ways (attached), the coloring is significant.

Each unique color represents a watershed, that is each color all drains out in the same direction and to the same point, ultimately draining to a single outlet into an ocean. You can always get from any point in the same color to any other point.

WRT a waterway which connects from ocean to ocean that would occur anytime there is a point that sits between two colors, almost always a lake, that drains off into each color in different directions. These lakes are special in the sense that they are the relatively rare waterways that belong to two or more watersheds.

#Nature #Rivers #water #watersheds #science @Science

Hi everyone @Science !

I'm in the process of writing (and hopefully aggregating contributions for) short scripts to help academics/researchers do various things more effectively. This is still very much in its infancy, but considering how often I tend to automate things, I expect it to grow at a pretty steady pace.

Current examples include short API wrappers to query different journals for given search terms and date ranges to pull pdfs directly, and a modular RSS helper to redirect to papers directly from your feeds. I'm currently working on scripts for remote cluster execution, traversing and executing code on git experimental branches and more!

I've started a repo here github.com/johnabs/ASR, and if anybody has ideas for scripts that researchers could use to help with their workflow, that would be awesome, and it would be great if people are willing to contribute.
#Science #research #coding #automation

For any ruby :ruby: devs out there, wanted to share a neat little open-source :opensource: module I wrote to solve a common problem. Keep in mind ruby is not my main language so if there is a batter approach here I'm all ears.

Basically right now I have a game (text based mud) and in normal and expected fashion objects in the game are created when their objects get initialized, such as a new player being created. The system then periodically saves the universe by marshalling all the object into some serialized format and saves it to a file from time to time. As tends to be the case with serialization, however, when an object is restored, such as a previous player logging out and back in, then the class is created directly without the initialize method getting called , its class and instance variables are simply populated directly.

This is where problems can arise if you change the system and add new features (such as a new variable to an object). New objects that are created will populate the new variable correctly through the initialize method however already existing players will not have that variable set at all (it won't be nil, it simply wont be set, which is a distinctly different state). This is the problem I solved.

What I did was created a mix-in module that lets you set default values for variables, once a class is reinstated from storage it checked if any variables that have defaults are unset (nil variables are considered set) and then applies the default value to them. In this way legacy objects will be able to update to new code changes automatically when it loads. To prevent duplicating code you can even intentionally leave it out of the initialize method and rely on the defaults when it is appropriate to do so.

Moreover the defaults do not have to be static values but can be determined based on the existing state of the object, which makes them dynamic and flexible... a class that uses the mixin could look like this:

require 'defaults'

class Foo
include Defaults

# @bar defaults to @baz*2
default(:bar) { |this| this.baz * 2 }
# @faaboo defaults to 178
default(:faaboo) { 178 }

def initialize
@baz = 13

#this line can be ommited
@bar = 26
# if you add this line instead
#either work fine

Here is a link to the module:


You can see a class that utilizes this new feature here:


#Ruby #RubyLang #Programming #Coding #software #ComputerScience @Science #code #source #sourcecode #opensource #oss #game #gaming #gamedev #QotoJournal


I really do love heat map visualizations of data, there is a certain beauty to it when seeing patterns emerge.

The following is a chart from a study that shows how peoples mobility in parks has been affected by covid. Original study can be found here:


#Science #Data #DataScience #Statistics #math #maths #Mathematics #COVID #COVID19 #Corona #coronavirus

In case anyone wants to check it out, this is my dev computer. I work on massively parallel algorithms a lot of the time so I need some really heavy duty GPUs for GPGPU (those are 4 watercooled Radeon Vega Frontier Edition GPUs) and a 32 core Ryzen 3.7 Ghz threadRipper CPU, and 64 gigs of the fastest ram around. this baby is a **beast**

inb4 why the Radeon GPUs and not NVIDIA or an Intel chip... simple, they are better for many/most applications but not all. The CPU and motherboard supports the full number of channels to maximize throughput into and out of the GPUs. So while they have fewer cores compared to a Tesla the cores dont tend to be the bottleneck, the I/O is, so i sacrificed cores to max out the I/O channels where the bottleneck tends to be. AMD and Ryzen ThreadRipper CPU were the only ones doing that.

#GPGPU #Parallel #Parallelism #GPU #programming #AI #MachineLearning #Algo #algos #Algorithms @Science


A project I did a while back for shits and giggles was a neural network that learned off random photos what natural coloring looked lik for various objects and faces. Then you could feed it random black and white photos and it would try to color them. Only spent a few days on it for fun, and as you can see the results were not perfect (had some artifacts). but the results were surprisingly good if you ignore the blemishes.

#machineLearning #AI #NeuralNetworks #imageProcessing #Science

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